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Puffed food process
2016-5-10

 At home and abroad in recent years, the use of technology to produce a series of leisure food, its characteristic crisp and refreshing, easy to digest absorb, so favored by consumers.

  High-temperature puffing food puffed points and screw extrusion.

The author is compared with the production process of high temperature expansion in-depth research, and in the actual production factory for many times to guide, accumulated some technical parameters and experience, this article through the analysis of each step in the process of synthesis of process of expansion.

    The technological process and equipment

   First of all, from the technological process, raw materials mixed - cooking - rolling - cooling aging cutting forming a drying drum - - storage - secondary drying - Fried seasoning - packaging - / bake/making finished products.

   According to the technological process, equipment arrangement, such as mixer, flour-rubbing machine, cooling machine, JuanPi machine, aging room, a dryer, secondary dryers, deep fryer and seasoning.

   High temperature expansion effect depends on the multiple aspects of puffed food.

   Such as raw material, the content of amylopectin in starch content, the more the expansion, the better;

   Internal moisture content in the intermediate and the lattice degree;

   Intermediate heating drying stage, join leavening agent, after partial decomposition form a tiny hole in the intermediate shape porous structure, the rest of the leavening agent thermal decomposition gas, both synergy, make products to achieve the bulk structure of fully expanded.

   The process parameters of each process and analysis

   The ratio of raw materials.

   The main raw material for starch and flour.

   Starchy, select the amylopectin, the higher the better.

   The commonly used raw materials, in turn, reduce the proportion of branched chain starch, puffing degree is lower in turn.

   Common raw material for their position to the market, the expansion degree is one of the best glutinous rice, followed by potato starch, cassava starch, glaze, corn starch, terrier.

  Flour with medium gluten content, wet gluten content about 25%) as well.

  The shrinkage of high gluten content, gluten elasticity products not easily expanded, resulting in collapse, rigid phenomenon;

  Gluten content is too low, when the roller face break easily.

   According to the practical production experience, recommend two ingredients.

   Solution 1: glaze m 20%, potato starch 80%, seasoning is right amount, raising agent right amount (1% ~ 3%).

   Scheme 2: cassava starch 35%, corn starch 35%, flour 30%, suitable amount of seasoning powder, raising agent right amount (1% ~ 3%).

  The scheme for the amount of glaze in 1 m cannot exceed 20%, otherwise the product puffing degree drop more.

  The following is a detailed analysis of step by step:

Cooking mixer.

  Raw materials and water and steam heating, steam pressure commonly 0.2 ~ 0.4 Mpa, 4 ~ 5 minutes after cooking water control at around 40%.

  Attention to evaporate through, beaten, make the starch gelatinization (alpha) adequately.

 Roller pressure.

  Steamed dough is hot rolled form 1 to 3 mm thick crust, press roll gap of 0.5 ~ 2.5 mm, same clearance requirements on both ends.

 Drum.

  Pressure roller good face after cooling, cooling machine with JuanPi machine in stainless steel pipe coil into rolls around 350 mm.

Cooling aging.

  Put rolls at 20 ℃ below (best temperature 3 ℃ ~ 6 ℃) and relative humidity of 50% ~ 60% of the warehouse in 24 hours, the starch aging (female).

 Cut to shape.

  After aging skin according to the required specifications embossing cutting molding on the machine.

 A drying.

  Temperature 50 ℃ ~ 60 ℃, in 1.5 ~ 2 hours.

  A water drop to 15% ~ 15% after drying, the semi-finished products surface lattice structure has been formed, but the internal moisture is more, not form a lattice structure.

  If a high moisture after drying, on the one hand, easy to mildew, when stored in the other hand did not achieve the purpose of a drying surface lattice;

  If water is too low, the surface lattice excessive, make the moisture not easily penetrate even, increasing the difficulty of the secondary drying, swelling caused by uneven.

 Deposit.

  Stored internally, in order to make the intermediate water seepage, uniform distribution, is advantageous to the secondary drying and puffing evenly.

  Storage time should be within 24 hours, make the semi-finished products are soft, not easy to break.

  Secondary drying.

   Temperature of 70 ℃ ~ 70 ℃, 6 ~ 8 hours, after drying the moisture should be controlled at about 8%.

   Test confirmed that the intermediate water has close relationship with swelling degree.

   Moisture content is exorbitant, instantaneous water gasification, lead to adverse, puffing is less brittle, sticky;

   And the water is too low, formation water steam is not enough, also expanded.

   Secondary drying after semi-finished products has been fully lattice, internal moisture distribution in the crystal lattice.

 


  Fried/making puffed.

  Fried generally use brown put oil, the oil temperature 190 ℃, 6 ~ 8 seconds.

  Making food with salt or food special sand as a heat transfer medium.

  Time of 20 ~ 25 seconds.

  Puffing temperature related to the finished puffing degree, temperature 200 ℃ ~ 210 ℃.

  High temperature of puffed food quality and the matching of raw materials, semi-finished products is closely related to the temperature of drying moisture control and expansion.

  Soybean puffed products case analysis

  Attention to development of plant protein.

  In developed countries, due to people's fear of cholesterol in the animal food and nutrition, latest epidemiological studies showed that soy foods have lower cholesterol, prevent cancer and other health benefits.

  Therefore, research on the development of soy foods, is strengthening and deepening.

   Below the soybean production technology of puffed food, do a simple introduction.

 Soak.

   Soaking soybean in three times its own weight in water or 0.5% sodium bicarbonate solution.

   Depending on the different season, different soaking time 8 ~ 16 hours, soak degree to soybean weight is about 2.2 times of the original weight.

Then rinse and drain well.

Pulping.

And produce in order to prevent the broken soybean by hot grinding, the whole grain of soybeans in 85 ℃ ~ 90 ℃ after clean hot water, reoccupy pulper ground into a paste.

Soybean and hot water ratio is 1:6 ~ 7.

Then separation, grinding paste, remove the bean dregs, soy milk sample products.

 Modulation.

   Heat the soymilk and maintain in 75 ℃ ~ 80 ℃, then according to the proportion of 0.2% in calcium sulphate, blending and let stand for 10 minutes, the condensation of soy protein, tofu sample products.

   Because of tofu digestion rate was 92.7%, compared to other soy products, such as cooking soybean digestion rate is high, so, puffed food made of tofu as basic material, the digestion rate also increased accordingly.

   Adding bulking materials and flavor substances.

  To improve bulking properties and nutritional quality of the product, to enhance their taste and flavor, can add the following material:

  1, add a certain amount of starch, such as cassava starch, improve expansion rate of the product.

   2, due to the lack of sulfur-containing amino acid, soy protein food crops such as rice, wheat protein lack of lysine, so, as the two phase mixed, can make its complementary protein amino acid components in the mixture, and thus improve protein biological potency of the product or biological effectiveness.

   It is advisable to ground into a powder, evenly to join.

   3, improve products can add a little flavor into the soft sugar, onion and garlic powder.

   Gelatinization drying technology processing.

   The tofu with the above three kinds of material in certain proportion after blending, 1 minute in the microwave heating, gas steam for 15 minutes for pasting again.

   After pasting a mixture of cooling to room temperature, cut into thin slices, dry for several hours under 50 ℃, made a similar prawn crackers.

   Secondary expansion.

   Will the semi-finished products by microwave or Fried (180 ℃ ~ 190 ℃, 6 ~ 10 seconds) expansion, can shake, flavor and delicious soy puffed food.

After frying the excess oil, can be used to clean water absorption paper towel.

Product packaging.

Puffed food with linear low density polyethylene film or aluminum foil packing, put 10 weeks at room temperature.

Every two weeks, to determine the brittleness products and moisture content.

The results show that the expanded soybean food packaging, placed at room temperature from six to eight weeks later, the quality did not change.